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Vegetation tiers

Vegetation tier represents biocenological (geobiocenological) building unit, which reflects the influence of climate on the composition of biota of chtonophytic synusia (geobiocenoses) and which is determined by this composition. Vegetattion tiers are differentiated by species that are in the first place trees, or. shrub determinants of main canopy level of indigenous forest and shrubs communities and all chtonophytes, that react decisively to the length of the growing season and the negative effects of climate. This means that vegetation tiers are determinated according to presence and expressions of living trees. There are 10 vegetation zones The bearers of vegetation tiers in the Czech Republic are following tree species: oak (Quercus petraea), beech (Fagus sylvatica), fir (Abies alba), a Norway spruce (Picea abies) and mountain dwarf pine (Pinus mugo), under which vegetation tiers are named, and due to dominance of particular tree species in vegetation tiers.distinguish degrees:

1. Oak

2. Beech-oak

3. Oak-beech

4. Beech


6. Spruce-beech

7. Beech-spruce

8. Spruce

9. dwarf pine

10. alpine

The pilot application used in Ukraine is depicted in the following interactive map view. The data were provided by the Forest Management Institute (FMI) in the Czech Republic.

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Forest typology

Forest site typology as a basic discipline of forest management, deals with the classification of permanent ecological conditions, ie. division of forests into segments with similar growth conditions to assess the environmental conditions and to draw appropriate conclusions for forestry management. The aim of the forest site classification is to derive the growth conditions on the basis of causal relations between vegetation, the main elements of physical-geographical, geological and climatical sphere.

The outputs of forest site classification serves as a basis for determining the economic measures, and operational and production goals (Forest management plans, forest management scheme). The importance of the outputs of forest typology was further strengthened in the new political-economic-environmental conditions, which has also become the basis for the evaluation functions of forest ecosystems, forest valuation, or the creation of management plans for specially protected areas.

Tool for the classification of environmental conditions is the Forest site classification system that describes the ecosystems with the potential vegetation.The major differentiation within the ecological conditions are Vegetation tiers (altitudinal vegetation zones) (taking into account the gradient of vertical zoning of vegetation) and edaphic categories (reflecting a gradient of trophic conditions and hydricity).

Elementary unit is a forest site type (FST). FST are affiliate according to ecological affinity to Forest site type complexes.


The data were provided by the Forest Management Institute (FMI) in the Czech Republic.